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  • Abstract

    The main purpose of conducting this research study is based on the effect of outdoor education on the concept attainment at elementary level Science subject. It was hypothesized that outdoor education has significant positive effect in logical concept attainment of ‘Scientific processes’ in Science at elementary level. The objectives of the study were to explore and investigate the concept attainment of scientific processes in Science and student level of participation in an interactive social experience. The population of the study was 8th grade students of elementary level. The Educators school was conveniently selected and 60 students from 8th grade comprised the sample of study. Two groups were formed and one was designed as control group and other was experimental group. The researcher conducted pretest before teaching the selected topics. The experimental group was taught with outdoor education method and they were exposed to natural environment for having practical learning of the selected concepts and control group was taught through traditional method of teaching. After 12 days of teaching to the both groups the researcher administered post test on both the groups. The t-test was applied on the raw scores of both groups which showed that there was significant positive effect of outdoor education on student learning. It was observed by the researcher that students of the experimental group took more interest in their leaning process as compared to the control group. Keeping in view the results it can be recommended that practical activities and learning through nature can be made an integral part of teaching at elementary level so that students show more interest in learning science.

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    Dr. Ishrat Siddiqa Lodhi, Rubiah Abid, Dr. Muhammad Shakir, Dr. Mubashar Nadeem

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    This study aims to investigate the relationship between domestic violence and depression among women. The sample was consisted of 300 women from the Gujrat city. The respondents’ age ranged from 20 to 60 years. Partner Abuse Scale (Hudson, 1992), and Depression Subscale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) were used for data collection. Results were computed by applying statistical techniques including correlation and t-test. Findings indicate that there was significant relationship between domestic violence and depression. The finding also reveals that higher level of domestic violence had insignificant mean difference between working and non-working victimized women, also for victimized women of rural and urban areas while there was significant mean difference between victimized and non-victimized women.

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    Yasir Saeed, Fouzia Naveed, Hassan Raza, Maryam Munir

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    The study entitled, “Impact of Vocational Education and Training on Women’s Socio-economic empowerment” aimed at measuring social, economic and household empowerment of women through Vocational Education and Training from Sargodha division. In this quantitative study self-administered questionnaire was used as a tool of data collection and it consisted of 36 questions. Questionnaire was filled by 211 respondents who passed out the training course from Vocational Training Institutes (VTIs) in the years 2013 and 2014. For empirical analysis, Correlation and Regression was used to see the relationship between vocational education (dependent variable) and Socio – Economic empowerment (independent variable). Data from the sample showed that majority of the respondents considered that vocational education is very helpful to empower women. Majority of the respondents feel that the training course increased their employment opportunity. Improved standard of living, participation in daily activities, more confident in social relations, freedom of expression, freedom of mobility, participation in major decisions of family, consulted in purchasing household accessories and independent to attend family and friend’s functions were the major responses reported by the respondents. On the basis of the aforementioned findings, it is suggested that yet greater investments must be made for meeting the emerging demands of women empowerment and the network of VTIs should also be increased to remote areas where women are in greater need of empowerment.

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    Noreen Akbar, Dr. Sadia Rafi, Dr. Mumtaz Ali

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  • Abstract

    In Pakistan, civic education is being given at different levels through different subjects like Pakistan Studies, Social Studies, Islamic Studies, and linguistics. However the contents so taught are mostly related to the aspect of value education. After reviewing the related literature it is observed that in the education so given, civic skills are not that much focused as compared to the values. In this context the present study was made to gauge the level of awareness, perception and practices of the students towards civic skills at tertiary level, in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

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    Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Inamullah, Dr. Ateeq Ahmad Tariq, Dr Muhammad Irshadullah

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    This study was conducted to explore the experiences of overseas students studying in Chinese universities. The objectives of the study were to analyze the cultural and learning experiences of International Students and to assess the students’ level of satisfaction with academic and other facilities offered by Chinese universities. Semi-structured interview protocol was used to gather data. The population of the study was post-graduate International students studying in Chinese universities. Owing to the limited time available for the study and other constraints, a purposive sampling technique was used. In total twenty five students from eight Chinese universities were interviewed. A literature review revealed that a vast array of studies have been conducted for the assessment of ‘culture shock’ , particularly social and academic shock to International students in a foreign university as well as level of satisfaction with academic and other services offered to International students by host universities. The findings revealed that all students interviewed had undergone cultural and academic shock, however, the degree of intensity varied individually. The majority of the students expressed feelings of satisfaction with the academic and other facilities offered to them by university, though language barrier and teacher-centered teaching model were significant problem emerging from the study. The most significant finding was the difference of opinion between Asian and Western students about cultural shock.

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    Xiaoyang Wang, Nasir Hussain S. Bukhari

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    Review of the Book "Masla-e Qaumiyat Aur Marka-e Din-o Watan" written by Dr. Abdul Qadir Khan, Fateh Publishers, Lahore: 2016, Pages 136, Price Rs. 300

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    Muhammad Naveed Akhtar

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    Primary focus of this paper is to test the hypothesis that India-Pakistan nuclear developments challenge the established norms of the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT). It aims to prove that despite the fact India-Pakistan, though are two different states their nuclear weapon programmes over the course of years have been tangled. Nuclear proliferation in South Asia reveals that how a determined state can acquire necessary fissile material, technology and knowhow to divert nuclear programme for developing nuclear weapons. South Asia enjoys unique status among students of strategic studies because it has become a laboratory to analyse, understand and draw lessons, from the region to overt future crises. Owing to prevailing trust deficit, mutual suspicions and turbulent India-Pakistan history, Pakistan fears Indian aggression and it is posed with security dilemma. Latter’s reliance on nuclear weapons create security dilemma for the former and provides breathing space for conventional and nuclear arms race. Efforts to match or outpace opponent military capabilities result in qualitative and quantitative improvements in nuclear realm. Pakistan’s reliance on nuclear weapons endorses realist dictum that self-help is the only recipe to survive in international anarchic system. Indian nuclear posture determines the fact that only nuclear weapons deter nuclear weapons. Causes of nuclear proliferation in South Asia need to be analyzed with their essential impact upon national security of India-Pakistan and their implication for the NPT.

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    Ashfaq Ahmad, Zulfiqar Hussain

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  • Abstract

    The concept of faith healing exists in every society. “Faith Healing” refers to the healing achieved by religious faith and prayers. Healing through faith is also referred as “Spiritual Healing” and mostly considered the last and only resort of solution. In Islam, the tradition of spiritual healing was basically derived from the Quran and Sunnah. For the sake of spiritual healing Muslims visit various aalims, pirs, and shrines, recite Quranic verses and offer prayers. The present study has been conducted with the main objective to explore social, economic and religious background of the people who believe and practice faith healing for the solution of their problems. The study explains how faith healing help people in resolving their socio-economic and medical problems and what are the motivating factors which persuade people to approach these faith healers. The study was conducted at Salfi House located in District Rawalpindi, Pakistan to explore relationship between the socio-economic statuses of the female clients and type of treatment they seek from faith healer. The data was collected by employing anthropological techniques including participant observation and in-depth interviews from 77 respondents which were conducted during the period of six months.

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    Aneela Sultana, Hamna Naru

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  • Abstract

    The Arab uprising that profoundly transformed the Middle East and North Africa originated from Sidi Bouzid, a small town in Southern Tunisia on 17 December 2010, with the self-immolation of a common young man as a protest against highhandedness of an abusive government official. Within weeks of this event, thousands of young men and women took to the streets in many of the Arab countries, chanting a common slogan “regime change.” The Arabs in all the countries were protesting against their authoritarian regimes with a unified narrative and a deep sense of shared destiny. The Arab Spring” has a lot to do with democracy and self-respect because the people have been victim of prolonged authoritarian rule which deprived them of political empowerment, freedom and social justice. The revolution has been orchestrated by men and women from all walks of life. Aided by technology i.e. cell phones, social media, Face book and Twitter, the educated and globalized young generation of the Arab world has been the main driving force behind the uprising. The Arab uprisings have been profoundly appreciated all over the world. However, there has been skepticism and nervousness in the West as to what will finally emerge out of such extra ordinary political events. Pakistan like the most Arab States is vulnerable to the effects of Arab Spring due to prolonged scourge of terrorism which has dented the fabrics of our society, deteriorating economic conditions and lack of job opportunities coupled with other socio-economic factors and weak governance make Pakistan ideal breeding ground for next round of Arab Spring like situation. This paper will analyze the causes and impact of Arab Spring on the region and draw pertinent lessons for Pakistan proffering comprehensive recommendations at the end.

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    Waseem Ishaque

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  • Abstract

    In the present era, Universities have acquired an importance and magnitude that is unprecedented. These are said to be the agents of change which emphasize augmentation and modification of those facets of society pertinent to culture, socialization and educational ministrations. Therefore, the credibility and attention afforded them is vindicated indeed. The University of Sargodha is one such agent of change that has influenced the Sargodha region in ways that are momentous to say the least. Through this study, an exertion has been made to comprehend the extent of influence and impact that the university has imparted upon the locality designated as Sargodha and its proximate areas. The subjects from whom the requisite data for this study was gathered hail from those dimensions that are readily and profoundly influenced by the University of Sargodha’s presence or aura if you will.

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    Dr. Sadia Rafi, Dr. Mumtaz Ali, Mohammad Ramiz Mohsin

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    The present research aimed to investigate the personality, perceived stress and coping strategies in early adulthood. It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a significant relationship between personality, perceived stress and coping strategies in early adulthood. The quantitative study design and convenient sampling technique was used for data collection having a sample size of N=180 (70 males and 110 females). Three self reported questionnaires were used for data collection. Personality was measured by Big Five Inventory (BFI) by using its five subscales that are extraversion vs. introversion, agreeableness vs. antagonism, conscientiousness vs. lack of direction, neuroticism vs. emotional stability, and openness vs. closeness to experience (John & Srivastava, 1999). Perceived stress was measured by using perceived stress scale - 14 that was developed by Cohen and his colleagues (1983).Wellness scale, thought control scale, active coping scale, social ease scale, tension reduction scale and spiritual practice scale, the six subscales of Stress Coping Resources Inventory were used to measure the coping strategies.Results indicated that personality subscales are significantly positively correlated with some subscales of coping strategies. It also revealed that perceived stress in negatively correlated with coping strategies and its subscales. However, regression analysis revealed that gender, father’s education, religion and health of the participant are important significant predictors of perceived stress and coping strategies. Furthermore, it was found that Agreeableness and extraversion type of personalities are significant predictors of coping strategies.Result findings also revealed no any significant differences of family system in any main variable of the study.

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    Muhammad Farooq, Shahnila Tariq, Tahira Kiran

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  • Abstract

    National Library plays an important role in the preservation and promotion of cultural heritage. This is an evaluative research study of the National Library of Pakistan (NLP) regarding policies, related to Legal Depositary Law and Policy assessment. A questionnaire based survey from the thirty five Library and Information Science Experts was carried out and the response rate was 80.05%. The study’s findings and conclusions are as, legal depository law has not been implemented in Pakistan and publishers are non-cooperative to deposit their publications. The policy contents are weak and not valid to implement. The major changes are required to the policy of the National Library of Pakistan. The study recommended that the management of NLP is responsible to implement the policies, regarding legal deposit, acquisitions, bibliographic control and digitization. The policies must be revised by the experts of Library and Information Science in the light of International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Federation for Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) standards.

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    Noor Mustafa Khan, Dr. Rafia A. Sheikh

  • Volume : 5 Issue : 2 Year: 2021

    LOST HISTORY: Michael Hamilton Morgan

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  • Abstract

    LOST HISTORY: Michael Hamilton Morgan, Pages 301, Published in 2008. National Geographic Society; 1145, 17th St. N.W. Washington D.C.2036. price: U.SS15.95

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    Muhammad Waris Awan

  • Volume : 1 Issue : 2 Year: 2012

    SOCIAL CAPITAL AND WORK PERFORMANCE OF DOCTORS

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  • Abstract

    Social capital is important to study the work performance of employees in any field. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between social capital and work performance and to examine the effects of social capital on work performance. The data was collected from 105 respondents residing in the targeted population on the basis of convenience sampling. Sample was gathered from different hospitals of Sargodha. Basically, this study was descriptive in nature. Structured questionnaire was used that vigilantly taking into account all the suggestions gathered during pretesting. Hypotheses were consisted of variables; social networking-work performance, peer relations-work performance, interaction-work performance and teamwork- work performance. The results showed a positive association of work performance with social networking, interaction and teamwork. Peer relations were not found significantly associated with work performance.

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    Khalid Mahmood Asim, Dr. Babak Mahmood, Mohammad Iqbal

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    This study examined Abbotabad Operation, a very significant in which Osama was captured and killed in Pakistan by the Americans. The gravity of the event blurred the question of violation of sovereignty and took trust deficit stricken Pak-US relation to its lowest ebb. It further strengthened the terrorist image of Pakistan. Osama & Al-Qaeda are the outcome of containment policy, block politics and strategic depth vision. Al-Qaeda basically is a reaction of American presence in holy land. Its main objective is to force the USA out from Muslim countries and install Islamic regime on the modal of initial Khilafat. Al-Qaeda was a partner with CIA and ISI against Russian invasion at first but became the worst enemy of the USA after Soviet withdrawn from Afghanistan. Westren countries are drastically threatened by the prospect of using WMDs (Weapons of Mass Destruction) by this organization in their countries. After American invasion in Afghanistan Al-Qaeda was forced to flee and take resort in Pakistan. Many of its principal leadership were captured from Pakistan but the hunting of the most wanted man from its soil further deteriorated mutual relations of Pakistan and the USA.

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    Saeeda Sultana, S. K. Alqama

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  • Abstract

    Pakistan and China enjoy a multi-dimensional friendship that has passed the test of international vicissitudes. Both sides never disturb their friendly ties despite changes on regional and global environment. Since 1980s, China’s foreign relations have become economy-centric and it has launched major economic and social reforms to modernize the country. Its economy enjoyed sustained and rapid development. The GNP increased at the rate of 9.9 percent annually from 1975 to 1995, and income of urban and rural population raised and touched the figure of 6.3 percent. This growing economy has made China an economic power of the world. Pakistan needs to take benefit of its time-tested friendship, which is not yielding desired results in economic field. In Pakistan, there is need of commitment with vigorous efforts to move on the path of economic reforms. With Chinese support, Pakistan has completed many projects while several are underway. There are still several areas, which want the attention of both sides urging mutual attempts to get benefits. New avenues of cooperation should be explored with a view to constantly expand the scope of economic development and laying solid foundation for closer bilateral ties. The paper is aimed to highlight those areas where more Chinese cooperation and assistance are required with discussion on the impediments that need to be addressed with proactive and supportive policies.

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    Dr. Musarrat Jabeen

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  • Abstract

    Cultures that come into being, in response to colonial domination by foreign powers, produce literatures that deal with the experience of colonialism. A piece of literature, if written by the colonialist writer, tends to project the colonialist ideology of superiority espoused by colonialists. However, if the writer belongs to the subject race, it either resists or reinforces the ideology of the superiority of the dominant race and culture. The present study is intended to investigate the portrayal of the impact of colonialist culture upon the native culture and identity, in the form of mimicry, hybridity and the ultimate rejection of the colonialist ideology was and culture by the subject race .The study also wanted to show that Ahmad Ali in Twilight in Delhi has portrayed the British as oppressors and has shown that the Indians resisted the colonialist ideology of superiority of the British. The study based upon the analysis of the text in the light of Postcolonial critical theory. The study found that Ali presented the resistance of the Indians to the colonialist ideology of superiority and he also portrayed the anti-colonialist ideology of the Indians and celebrated the ancient Indian civilization and culture. The study found that colonialism leaves its residual impact upon the culture and identity of the subject race.

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    Dr. Muhammad Ayub Jajja

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  • Abstract

    This paper is an effort to get an insight into the course of events, occurred during the seventies in Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. It also explores the fact that it was not the grand design of the Soviet Union (USSR) to reach the warm waters, a much propagated theory by the western scholars, but actually it was the grand design of the United States to compel the USSR to enter into Afghanistan and to defeat it decisively to end the Cold War. The United States chose Afghanistan as a ‘battlefield’ and Islamic ideology of ‘Jehad’ (the Holy War) to counter Communism. It planned to mobilize the Islamic fundamentalist factions in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union with the help of Pakistan and Iran. The US needed ‘friendly’ and ‘religious minded’ rulers in Pakistan and Iran for the implementation of its plan so that they could support the religious factions of Afghanistan. The then governments in Pakistan and Iran could not have the right ability to serve the purpose. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and the Shah of Iran were though still ‘friendly’ but not ‘religious-minded’ in nature. The change in governments, both in Pakistan and Iran, was must for the implementation of US plan in Afghanistan. The latter developments in the region prove that the US took every possible step in this regard and ended the Cold War by defeating the Soviet Union decisively. That's why, the writer does believe that the Soviet move into the Afghanistan in 1979 was not offensive but it was defensive in its nature.

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    Khalid Naseem, Muhammad Waris Awan

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  • Abstract

    In this paper the research scholar has tried to focus the irregularity in spellings and pronunciation of English language, which pose a lot of problems for the learners of this all around the world. A comparative analysis of Urdu and American English in the historical perspective has been presented to highlight discrepancies that pose serious hurdles for the new learners. Spelling reform in the realm of English language is the dire need of the hour. English language has been renewing itself by shedding off old forms in spelling and pronunciation over the last couple of centuries and adopting new ones. The fashionable idea of spelling reform is becoming a dominant tendency of the present age but efforts in this regard remain scattered. It is impossible to change spellings of words and even it is done it looks like an impossible project to implement it successfully.

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    Abdul Rauf Awan

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  • Abstract

    Air Pollution is one of the main problems of urban area of our society. Air pollution occurs when so many contaminants are released by the industries and motor vehicles. Karachi is one of the top 10 cities of the world which has the highest level of pollutants packed into the air. Air pollution is affecting the health of common men. People often suffer in respiratory diseases like asthma, lungs diseases and cancer etc. It has become a serious health hazard for Karachiites. In the present research paper, the researcher has tried to explore causes of air pollution and its effects on human health. It has been observed that the number of private vehicles is increasing day-by-day due to lack of good public transport facilities. The roads are not broad enough to allow this big number of vehicles run comfortably. In near future there is no hope for extension of roads so on the basis of findings some recommendations are made, and by implementations of those the effects of air pollution can be minimized. But sincerity and commitment is required for it.

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    Dr. Gheyas Uddin Siddique, Dr. Muhammad Nadeem-Ullah

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  • Abstract

    Current paper analyses the formation, contribution and importance of Punjab Peasant Movement in social and political sectors of the province. The internal and external constraints in the development of the Peasant Movement have been examined. In this regard the challenges to the Movement in the form of actions of governments, religious leaders and the local Zamindars who acted to create hurdles in the development of the Movement need to be explored. The paper thus marks how the affiliations of the peasants with the Movement that could contribute to its success were wasted because the weak leadership could not transform it into highly result oriented struggle, as initially envisaged by the founders of the movement. The incapability of the leadership in respect of the organization of the Movement was also examined. Current study is exploratory and descriptive in nature, where the conclusions have been drawn on the basis of interviews conducted with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and the relevant literature has been reviewed for the purpose.

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    Muhammad Waris Awan, Rehana Iqbal

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  • Abstract

    Book Review

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    Ahmad Rashid Malik

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    Book Review: Social Work education in countries of the East: Issues and Challenges

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    Dr. Gheyas Uddin siddiqui

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  • Abstract

    The present study aimed at studying the relationship between psychological resilience, self esteem and delinquent tendencies among orphan and non orphan adolescents. The sample consisted of 42 orphan adolescents including boys (n=30) and girls (n=12) from orphan institutions of Sargodha city and 42 non orphan adolescents including boys (n=30) and girls (n=12) from School of Sargodha, selected through purposive sampling. Age range of adolescents was from 12 to 19 years (M=15.5, SD= 2.16). Resilience Scale (Batool, 2012), Self Reported Delinquency Scale (Naqvi & Kamal, 2008) and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Sardar, 1998) were used to asses psychological resilience, delinquent tendencies and self esteem respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between self esteem and delinquent tendencies whereas, a significant positive correlation between self esteem and resilience. T-test analysis revealed significantly high level of resilience in orphans as compared to non orphan adolescents however non-orphans were found to have more delinquent tendencies than orphan adolescents. These results are helpful for academicians and psychologist to sort out and deal the problems of orphan and non-orphan adolescents and to take preventive measures to solve their problems regarding high level of delinquent tendencies and low level of resilience.

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    Dr. Mian Ghulam Yasin, Dr. Najma Iqbal

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  • Abstract

    Riparian relations are emerging as one of the most difficult aspects of inter-state relations in the 21st century. The Indian sub-continent is also emerging as a flashpoint for water-related issues between nations. Due to the reluctance of the nations of South Asia to incorporate the Espoo (EIA) Convention that sets out the obligations of Parties to assess the environmental impact of projects completed or initiated, there is possibility of freshwater related issue spiralling into serious inter-state contention. In this context, this article is an attempt to take stock of the direction of riparian relations between India and Pakistan, to comprehend the nature of water issues between these two states which share the Indus River Water system, with an intention to examine whether the conflict-cooperation dichotomy of the inter-state water debate adequately explains the riparian relations of these two nations.

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    Ms. Obja Borah Hazarika, Ms. Simi Mehta

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  • Abstract

    This study investigated the relationship among directive and participative leadership behavior of degree college principals, and faculty job satisfaction, acceptance of leader and job expectancies, moderated by teachers’ need for autonomy. The questionnaire was comprised of a combination of instruments measuring directive and participative leadership styles, need for autonomy and all three subordinate outcomes along with two scales for measuring role ambiguity and stress of the principals for controlling their affects. ANCOVA and MANCOVA were used to know the moderating affect of need for autonomy on the relationship of leadership style and subordinates’ outcomes controlling the effect of role ambiguity and stress of the principals. Findings indicated that the need for autonomy differentially affected subordinate outcomes relationships with directive and participative leader behaviors. Two out of six hypotheses were according to the predictions of theory. All the results of the study were discussed in relation to the path-goal theory.

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    Dr. Riffat-un-Nisa Awan

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  • Abstract

    The research paper is an attempt to provide a national picture of commercial sexual exploitation of women and children in Pakistan. This growing phenomenon has been studied in the light of ‘demand and supply’ principal. Supply, demand and impunity, together, create a space in which trafficking can flourish. The study documents the magnitude, incidence and consequences of women and children engaged in beggary and sex business. The role of poverty and mindset which forces the women and children in the particular business has been addressed. The poverty is the lack of ability to earn and satisfy one’s basic minimum needs to keep body and soul together. When the community and the state fail to provide basic needs, the trend of begging increases and attains an organized way of income generation. The study also reviews what is known about the causes and associated risks and protective factors. Its focus is on preventive strategies, in particular through the identification of best practices in prevention, including those designed by the victims themselves. This study also reveals the role of religion, society and neighborhood in promoting begging as a business which ultimately leads to human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Furthermore, the study describes the evidence demonstrating which interventions work, which are promising, and which have been shown to be ineffective.

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    Dr. Hafeez-ur-Rehman Chaudhry, Dr. Anwaar Mohyuddin

  • Volume : 2 Issue : 1 Year: 2013

    Ancient Libraries of Egypt

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  • Abstract

    The Civilization and libraries came into being in Egypt and Mesopotamia for the first time in the history of the mankind. The libraries have always played an important role in helping humans to meet their basic needs for survival and self realization. Hence the libraries were established in each and every part of the civilized world since remotest past. In this paper an attempt has been made to give a brief account regarding the emergence of the libraries in Egypt. Many libraries have been discovered in Egypt especially the libraries of Edfu and Remises-II.

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    Dr. Fazil Khan

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  • Abstract

    In the research paper positive discrimination with female elementary teachers has been idiosyncratically analyzed. To widen employment opportunity as well as to positively discriminate females in Punjab, Pakistan, female teachers have been inducted in male schools where only male teachers were teaching to male students. The process of including females in male schools definitely is an encouragement but it is more interesting to investigate to what extent male teachers and heads allow them to work more autonomously within co-staffed schools. The study intends to identify the gaps if exist and need to fill them to discriminate positively with newly inducted female teaching staff in public schools. Data were collected through questionnaires using convenient sampling technique from 118 female teachers inducted in public schools located in Punjab, Pakistan. Factors upon which the gaps were identified included time-suppleness, workload, appreciations, value opinion, favorable policy, male behavioral dominance, female confinement, affections to children, privileges prearranged. The result of the study suggests that notwithstanding inducting women in male elementary schools is encouraging movement but still gaps exists which need to be filled to discriminate female teachers positively.

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    Rabia Aslam, Dr. Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan

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  • Abstract

    This paper aims to discuss the impact of training courses on practicing teachers' educational beliefs and aspirations. It is believed that this is a somehow neglected area of English language teacher education where in most cases courses put an emphasis on the technical delivery of a number of skills and they do not devote time to discussing values which underlie practice. As a result; it may happen that teachers do not fully accept new philosophies and change because these may be contradictory to their existing value systems. Besides discussing ‘teachers’ education and training institutions in Pakistan, first, the concept of educational change will be discussed. This is followed by the presentation of a research project which was carried out to examine the effects of training on Pakistani ELT teachers' values. Finally, the paper will offer some suggestions on how value training should be implemented in the course of teacher education and teachers’ training workshops can be made fruitful in achieving set objectives.

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    Tazanfal Tehseem

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  • Abstract

    Corruption is not only the cause or effect of poor leadership; there are many other social factors which gauge the performance of a leader. The prime objective of the research was to know the people’s perception about causes and impact of poor leadership. Several variables like age, education, gender and some intervening variables (leader’s behavior about subordinates, level of knowledge, leadership qualities and influence of political family culture) were also analyzed in search of the study objectives. The sample size of present research was 150 respondents. A stratified random sampling design was used for the selection of respondents. The questionnaire instrument was used to collect data and Pre-testing was carried out. The collected data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS).

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    Ayesha Tehreem, Dr. Babak Mahmood, Malik Muhammad Sohail***

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  • Abstract

    After gaining independence in 1991, Uzbekistan faced a plethora of issues and challenges. One such challenge was in the sphere of culture. It was realized that the need of the hour was to relook at Uzbekistan’s history, because, there is no future without knowing the past. The Year 1991, along with political independence, brought cultural and religious freedom to the Uzbek people and liberated them from the repressive Soviet past. Fundamental changes in society made a great impact on hearts and minds of people and gave a powerful impetus to rebirth of religious, moral, ethic and cultural values of the nation. In order to fully comprehend a nation’s self identity, one has to restore the broken links between generations by applying to the past and the history of the soil. The fibre of society is knit by the evaluation of various aspects of life that includes the daily colour of human activity. The socio-religious conditions of a society depict its cultural, religious and historical affiliations. The main objective of the paper is to highlight and traverse of the rebirth and revival of pre-soviet socio-religious and cultural ethos and life pattern in the post-soviet Uzbek society. The paper is conceptual and based upon the secondary sources.

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    Saima Ibrahim

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  • Abstract

    This study has been conducted to assess the bi-directional relationship of economic growth and inflation so that beyond theoretical concept inflation could be treated for policy implication. Time Series data pertaining to 1971 to 2005 for analysis purposes was applied to estimate the objective oriented results. Both the series were found to be stationary at first difference for all the considered period on the basis of ADF test and Phillip Parron test. The estimated Error Correction Model (ECM) has shown no exact relationship in the short as well as in the long run. Undoubtedly the three periodical segments showed different pattern of relationship because of independency of relationship under every considered segment of time beyond theory and concept. So there existed a positive shock to the system which resulted in adjustment in opposite direction. These results were supporting the idea that the system revealed no relationship between inflation and economic growth under the environment created by the economic, social and political policies of the country. The optimal inflation rate for Pakistan under the introduced economic environment was 8 percent or 9 percent which would be positively contributing to economic growth.

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    Dr. Mazhar-ul-Haq Baluch

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  • Abstract

    Book Review: Rohan Gunaratna and Khuram Iqbal, Pakistan: Terrorism Ground Zero London, Reaktion Books, 33-Great Sutton Street, 2011. Price: UK £19.75/ US $29.

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    Muhammad Waris Awan

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  • Abstract

    Jawaharlal Nehru was the architecture of modern India after its independence in 1947.Apart from handling the domestic situation, Nehru’s major contribution lies in the area of external relations as he kept foreign affairs under his strict control over seventeen years and made all the major foreign policy decisions himself merely getting consultation from his advisers and aides. Constructing the conceptual frame work of foreign policy, Nehru abrogated to himself the role of the sole arbiter of Indian foreign policy. His policies were characterized by ideological perspective including Panchsheel, nonalignment, colonialism and racism. Formulating the foreign policy, Nehru not only considered the other states’ foreign policies but also observed the trends in contemporary world politics. These two traditionally discrete realms known as inter-domestic politics increasingly influenced the Indian foreign policy jointly highlighting the need for the leader to integrate his domestic and foreign policies. All activities occurring beyond India’s borders structured the choices of Nehru’s policymaking. He wanted India to have an identity without overt commitment to either power bloc; the USA and the Soviet Union. The paper is to analyze the internationalist approach of Nehru in foreign policy-making, which led him to find solution in non-alignment and Punjsheel. Despite these peaceful looking policy, the question is Indian clash with its neighbors; Pakistan over Kashmir and China over the border. Keeping in view, these two opposite direction, Nehru’s foreign policy has been analyzed discussing different issues and occasions.

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    Dr. Musarrat Jabeen

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  • Abstract

    This study was conducted with a key purpose to examine the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of urban and rural students in University of the Punjab. Three hundred and forty (340) students were selected, 170 urban and 170 rural students from the mainly four faculties of University of the Punjab by the random sampling. In this study, hypotheses were formulated. t-test was used to analyze the difference between academic achievement and in emotional intelligence of urban and rural students. Regression test was used to check the relation between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of the urban and rural students. The results showed that there was significant difference of academic achievement of urban and rural students on contrary, insignificant difference of academic achievement of urban and rural students. There was no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of urban and rural students in University of the Punjab.

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    Nayab Javed, Abida Nasreen (PhD), Anjum Naz (PhD), Almas Shoaib

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  • Abstract

    Effectiveness of the instruments and strategies for child welfare in Pakistan has been a big challenge in the face of robust and rampant child abuse in the country. How far these instruments and strategies addressed the situation has been an un-answered question of the first two decades of new millennium. This question has been answered through the analysis of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).The main objective of this study was to evaluate child welfare in terms of Pakistan’s achievement in MDG2&4(child-related MDGs) and also in comparison with its neighboring countries like India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Being a literature-based study multiple sources of secondary data were accessed through their websites. The analysis leads us to the fact that child welfare in Pakistan is residual in nature. To double-check the results of the analysis made through locally constructed indices, the findings were triangulated by the In-Depth Interviews (IDIs) of 30 welfare personnel of the country as well as by Child Development Index (CDI), a child-related UN index.

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    Authors

    Dr. Amir Zada Asad, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

  • Volume : 2 Issue : 2 Year: 2013

    Inscription of Pir Balkhi Kashmiri Bazar Lahore

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  • Abstract

    In Islamic gallery, there were some valued inscriptions displayed in a corner at museum Lahore. The inscription attributed to the saint Pir Balkhi buried in the Kashmiri bazar but recorded in Lahore museum which was apprised the said inscription received from tomb of saint Salahuddin’s at kaithal in District Karnal at India. The calligraphy of the inscription was represented 400 years of Monumental Calligraphy. The script was a specific nature of monumental suls.

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    Rukhsana Nadeem Bhutta, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal Bhutta

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  • Abstract

    The article mainly deals with the perception and experiences of the infertile women. It highlights social consequences that arise due to their childlessness and reproductive failure. Data for this study comes from anthropological research tools primarily participant observation and in-depth interviews which were conducted with sixteen married infertile women in a village Choha Shah Ghareeb in Tehsil Hassan Abdal, District Attock. This anthropological study explains how infertility is perceived in a culture where motherhood is considered the most conventional way for married women to prove their worth by providing children which is highly valued for the establishment and continuation of the family. It also highlights how religious beliefs and fear of social stigma shape their perception of progeny and persuade them to adopt various strategies to fulfill their desires of having children. In short, this paper critically examines the construction of motherhood as a cultural category.

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    Aneela Sultana,Dr. Hafeez-ur-Rehman Chaudhry

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  • Abstract

    Punjab possesses unmatchable prowess that it demonstrated throughout its history. The British witnessed a vigorous resistence from the leftists till the collapse of their Raj in 1947. Leftists immensely contributed to the national politics by participating in the political activities at bottom level and prepared the masses to register their protest against exploitation. Human rights and humanity expounded by universal ethics don’t concede laws and moves against the violation of the basic rights. Masses constitute major portion of any society therefore the majority can not be deprived of their basic rights. Leaders of different political parties, Congress, Muslim League, Unionist Party, and other social organizations of the Punjab played significant role in the intellectual fabrication but the contribution of the leftists in spreading prowess and determination among the masses is praiseworthy. They worked hard for pursuit of life and infused the sense of integrity and revolutionary ideas in the west Punjab after 1947. Leftists faced unremitting hurdles as the rightists had dominated in the social especially the political domains. Nevertheless, the committed activists of the left wing organizations made their utmost endeavours to bring a revolutionary change in the social circles of the newly established country. This article deals with the efforts made by the communist and socialist activists for awakening the masses and providing them a platform which could raise voice for their due rights.The modern socialistic philosophy is based on Marx’s review of the capitalistic economy and his own ideas on class struggle and surplus value. It aimed to eradicate the exploiting powers and capitalistic class through a revolution and to ensure a classless society. Several socialist thinkers including Lenin revised his theories after his death keeping new trends in mind.

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    Muhammad Waris Awan, Rehana Iqbal, Muhammad Tahir

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  • Abstract

    Book review: Zahid Hussain, The Scorpion's Tail: The Relentless Rise of Islamic Militants in Pakistan-And How It Threatens America, Free Press New York, 2010. Price: US $15

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    Authors

    Irfan Nawaz

  • Volume : 3 Issue : 1 Year: 2014

    Religious Outlook and Attitude towards Science

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  • Abstract

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between religious outlook and attitude towards science in Pakistan For the purposes of data collection, a questionnaire comprising three parts was used. These were as follows. Part 1: “religious outlook”. Part II: “perceived benefits of religious faith”. Part III: “attitudes towards science”. The sample of the study comprised of the students of Grade 11 and 12 from three districts of Punjab (Pakistan): Sargodha, Gujranwala and Chiniot. We personally visited the sample students and collected the data. The questionnaire was validated through factor analysis. The data analysis revealed that there was no correlation between religion outlook and attitude towards science.

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    Muhammad Sarwar, Shafqat Hussain, Ashfaque Ahmad Shah

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  • Abstract

    Afghanistan is under occupation by coalition forces led by the United States since almost last thirteen years. Invasion of Afghanistan was made on the pretext of countering terrorism, dismantling international terrorism and establishing democracy. Since the start of war regional powers have been involved in the war measures and post-war state building efforts with varying roles and interests. Regarding the role of regional powers there is a mix response from the International Community. On the one hand these are considered as ‘part of solution’ and viewed as facilitators. On the other hand their involvement is viewed as a threat to the stability and security in Afghanistan. It is established fact that regional powers have involvement in Afghanistan but the question is what drives regional powers for such involvement. War on Terror forced regional powers to cooperate in counter-terrorism operations but now when the withdrawal plan of International forces is announced, a new wave of competition has started between India and Pakistan to serve their relative geo-strategic, geo-political and economic and commercial interests. These interests are varying and sometimes conflicting. Besides other interests both the nations have strategic stakes in Afghanistan. Pakistan has pre-occupied with its ‘strategic depth policy’ and India with its security related to Kashmir. There is a clear indication that the clash and competition in Afghanistan among regional powers may be transformed into a hot war after the withdrawal of International Forces. The need is to manage their interests and neutralize their concerns regarding the post-2014 scenario in Afghanistan. In this regard an enhanced regional cooperation is required. Recent conduct of election and formation of coalition government in Afghanistan led both by the competing political segments can be regarded as an opportunity for the strengthening of stability and security situation in Afghanistan. At strategic level a Bilateral Security Agreement (BSA) has also signed between new Afghan government and United States that would also facilitate establishment of stability in Afghanistan. This will augment regional efforts to bring stability in Afghanistan. Paper evaluates the endgame politics in Afghanistan. It analyses the nature of regional powers’ interests and concerns in relevance to post-withdrawal scenario in Afghanistan.

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    Hussain Abbas, Irfan Hasnain Qaisrani

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  • Abstract

    Any program of education, for school or college, university or training centre can never be considered wholly objective. It is an essential product of certain choices made by those in-charge(s) of selecting what knowledge and skill should be taught to the learners. Therefore, the curriculum at any educational level is based on certain values and biases which reflect the views and beliefs of those who have designed and constructed it. Thus the learners’ extensive exposure to such a curriculum and other learning material over the years serves as the powerful means of indoctrinating them with specific ideological biases. The role of textbooks in any educational program is highly important; they expose the learner to specific, socio-cultural, national and moral aspects. Generally, those are opinion-molding texts rather than purely knowledge based texts for they define the world, pass judgments upon it and frame our attitudes towards it. The present study based on the qualitative approach is concerned with the dissemination of ideology through textbooks. The selected textbooks have been analyzed manually on the paradigm of content analysis and the conclusion is drawn by keeping in view the socio-political and socio-cultural norms of the Pakistani society in which they operate.

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    Tazanfal Tehseem

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  • Abstract

    Political stability of Afghanistan is a prerequisite for peace in South Asia in general and Pakistan in particular. Afghanistan’s political situation directly impinges on the security of Pakistan. The continued wars and civil wars in Afghanistan for last three and half decades have badly damaged the political institutions of Afghanistan and caused unimaginable losses, both in men and material, not only to the people of Afghanistan but also to the people of Pakistan, particularly in the areas located in the proximity of Afghanistan. In the wake of planned drawdown of NATO in 2014, an atmosphere of uncertainty looms large on the political horizon of Afghanistan, with the apprehensions expressed that this country may plunge once again into the abyss of lawlessness and civil war. The study in hand aims at distillation of Afghanistan’s existing political and security systems and chances of their survivability after NATO’s drawdown, besides analyzing the current frictions between Pakistan and Afghanistan on various issues. The underlying assumption of this study is that the political and security situation of Afghanistan has a direct linkage with security and political stability of Pakistan. The key findings of this study are that political and security systems of Afghanistan have too fragile structures and institutions, which are heavily dependent on foreign assistance. Afghanistan could not develop trustworthy relations with neighboring states, particularly Pakistan, by removing various irritants. The Government of Afghanistan needs to recognize Durand Line and work out, in collaboration, with Pakistan, an effective border management and surveillance mechanism, to wipe out the infrastructure of drug- traffickers, saboteurs and terrorists from both sides of Durand Line. The international community needs to work towards peace and prosperity of South Asia, as the people of this region deserve much needed respite and let-up from violence and bloodshed.

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    Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi, Rafaqat Islam

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  • Abstract

    This article deals Pak-India relations during period of first military ruler of Pakistan, which was started in October1958 and ended in 1969. After taking the charge, Ayub Khan offered Indian Government the proposal of joint defense between both the countries i.e. India and Pakistan, but Indian Government rejected it. Pakistan and India signed Indus Basin Treaty in October 1960 when Nehru visited Pakistan in Karachi and Murree. As far as solution of Kashmir issue is concerned, both countries met many times but not reached any solution. In 1965, war started between both the countries that were one of the big wars after World War-II. Although Indian Government was given full advantage by Ayub Khan to avoid war, but failed. In 1966 both the countries met at Tashkent in Soviet Union and signed on Tashkent Accord.

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    Muhammad Iqbal Sial, Muhammad Waris Awan

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  • Abstract

    Ali Hujveri is one of the best known Sufis of the world. His exposition of Sufi doctrine and practice are distinguished not only by his wide learning and first-hand knowledge but also by the strong personal character impressed on everything he writes. He has presented his Sufi wisdom and teachings in his everlasting work Kashf-ul-Mahjoob (written in the reply of the questions of his friend Abu saeed Hujveri on some mystic concepts).This paper discusses his views regarding the responsibility of an individual towards the decency of the society, with reference of his denoted magnum opus. It is explored that Hujveri’s views are highly valuable for building a sound Islamic society.

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    Dr. Hafiz Mansoor Ahmad

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  • Abstract

    Book Review: Evelyn Z. Brodkin and Gregory Marston, Editors,Work and the Welfare State: Street-Level Organizations and Workfare Politics,Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 3240 Prospect Street, NW, Suite 250, 2013.

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    Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

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  • Abstract

    The purpose of this research study was to find out and compare the professional attitude of prospective teachers of B.Ed. session (2012-2013) enrolled in public and private institutions of campuses of University of Education and private teacher training colleges affiliated with University of Education. The population for this research study consisted of all the prospective teachers of B.Ed. session (2012-2013) who were completing their academic courses and training. Out of the population, the researchers drew out 240 prospective teachers using convenience sampling technique, 120 prospective teachers were selected from public and 120 from private teacher training institutions. For the purpose of data collection, “Attitude Scale towards the Profession of Teaching (Ustuner, 2006)”, was used. Analyses, although, reveal that there is no significant difference in the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers of both institutions but gender-wise the prospective teachers show statistically significant differences in their level of professional attitude. Male prospective teachers of private institutions show less positive professional attitudes than male and female prospective teachers of public sector.

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    Muhammad Riaz, Zahida Habib, Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan

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  • Abstract

    Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program and deterrence capability has attracted negative perceptions due to Pakistan’s internal turmoil, proliferation allegations, historical tensions with India, and recent development of Short Range Ballistic Missiles. These perceptions do not factor in Pakistan’s security compulsions in the region due to India’s changing strategic orientations and major power ambitions in South Asia. Pakistan’s has taken efforts to showcase itself as a responsible nuclear weapons state as it attempts to overcome these misperceptions with gradual transparency. Pakistan values strategic stability in South Asia and deterrence credibility towards India across all spectrums. Yet, the nuclear relationship in South Asia remains under flux and constantly shifting due to the changing security challenges and rise of violent non-state actors.

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    Authors

    Ahmad Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

  • Volume : 3 Issue : 2 Year: 2014

    Status of Women in Pakistan: A Situation Analysis

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  • Abstract

    Women status is a scorching issue in the underdeveloped countries, like Pakistan, for last six decades. This article is a descriptive review of women status in Pakistan. In this article, the situation of women in Pakistan with regard to their poor health conditions, educational status, economic conditions, and violence against them will be discussed. The role and the situation for women in a customary society of Pakistan include a great suffering. They suffer not only due to cultural constraints prevailing in the country, but also due to the government’s unwillingness to uplift women's status. Even being a signatory to different international commitments and having national policies to ensure gender equality, the domestic policies are still unable to protect women from violence in Pakistan. There is a discernible gap between the policy making in the country and their implementation mechanism, resulting in the poor status of women in the country.

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    Beenish Ijaz Butt, Dr. Amir Zada Asad

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  • Abstract

    The study presented a comparative view of the higher education sector of UK, USA, and France in line with the societal demand on labour market. Secondary sources of data were used. Focus of the study was to investigate the (economic) performance of university graduates in the labour market. Findings of the study helped to conclude that there was a growing gap. There was an obvious lesson to be learnt for the countries like Pakistan.

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    Authors

    Ashfaque Ahmad SHAH, PhD, Muhammad Sarwar, PhD, Amjid Ali Arain, PhD, Uzma Shahzadi, Shafqat Hussain, PhD

  • Volume : 3 Issue : 2 Year: 2014

    OIC Leadership in 1974: Aspirations and Aftermaths

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  • Abstract

    The dawn of 1970s observed trendy foreign policy by the leadership of the Muslim World. Following the 1967 Arab-Israel War the Muslim countries entered into a new era of political and socio-economic cooperation through a joint platform of Organization of Islamic Conference. Arab-Israel conflict became the immediate cause of its formation, and the initial fervour, emotions were manifested in high aspirations at Lahore, in 1974. The emerging young leadership represented largely the general support of their respective countries. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan, Colonel Qaddafi of Libya, President Houari Boumedienne of Algeria, Shah Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Jafar al Namiri of Sudan, and PLO’s Yasser Arafat were at the top of the pyramid. They tried to configure an independent Muslim World Order by exploring alternatives other than becoming a US or a Soviet client or with the new defunct Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). The prospects for future of the Muslim Ummah seemed progressive, however, the aura of this leadership dispersed soon as this leadership got through ill fate leaving their followers dispersed on the way to achieve the proposed objectives in the 1974 Summit. This study makes an effort to explore why this aura has wiped out gradually, portraying these leaders culprits in their own homelands.

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    Erum Gul Sajid

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  • Abstract

    Book review: Margaret Alston and Wendy Bowles, Research for Social Workers: An introduction to methods 2nd Edition, South Wind Productions, Singapore, 2003.

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    Irfan Nawaz

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  • Abstract

    The paper examines that lack of legislative support, interest and infrastructural revival left FATA and Frontiers Region far behind the rest of Pakistan in economic, social and political terms. It may be negligence coincidence with the hard facts of region such as conflict in Afghanistan that made FATA and Frontiers Region ideal breeding grounds for extremism and radicalism. The importance can be judged from the fact that owing to present deteriorating law and order scenario in KP and FATA, whole Pakistan’s milieu has become a sheer victim of the essential fallouts. As a result of the breeding grounds of terrorism and radicalism, the economy of the country reached to the lowest ebb. Foreign exchange reserves remained alarmingly at the low level. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is substantially low in history of the country. Terrorism, fundamentalism, sectarianism and extremism have become order of the day. Private investor is in limbo and is looking for new horizons for his investment abroad such as Middle East, Sri Lanka or Bangladesh. Kalashnikov culture has become prominent and extortionists are wandering as the free birds in the mainland. Accordingly, causes of extremism need to be analyzed with their essential impacts upon the national security of Pakistan at this critical juncture.

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    Ashfaq Ahmad, Zulfiqar Hussain

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  • Abstract

    Sex status assumes an imperative part in deciding different parts which are performed by particular gender in specific social orders. Because of patriarchal nature of Pakistani society, gender inequality has been seen at wide level. Hence, women have turned into the minimized section of this patriarchal society. Unfortunately, this fragment is more than fifty percent of the aggregate populace of Pakistan. Among this substantial populace, a few women populace can get chance to work but unfortunately these working ladies can't work with their maximum capacity for various constraints extended from family to society. In brief, women having occupation needs to persuade his family that she won't do anything which may hurt the families' appreciation and respect in the public arena. Alongside, she needs to adjust her family and profession in the meantime. In the light of these realities, the motivation behind the study is to investigate the imperviousness to working women at different levels. Using structured questionnaire, information was gathered from two hundred (200) working women serving public and private organizations of district Bhakkar and Mianwali. For dissecting information, OLS model is used and connected direct relapse to test the theory made by the scientist. The findings of the study are that working women are more marginalized in rural localities and conservative values are among core factors of constraints. Besides, women working in public organizations are facing less constraints comparing to those women working in private sector. Moreover, this research study concludes that working women are facing constraints of various magnitudes extending from family life to social surroundings. Hence, it is recommended that endeavors ought to be made at different levels including administrative and nearby levels. Then, it is dire need to create better opportunities for women in professions so that they are motivated for doing jobs.

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    Dr. Sadia Rafi, Irfan Riaz, Abid Hussain

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  • Abstract

    The study investigated the role of perceived organizational politics in meaningful work, organizational commitment and its constructs (i.e. continuance commitment, affective commitment, and normative commitment) among purposively selected 120 university teachers both male and female through survey research. Perception of Organizational Politics Scale (Kacmar & Carlson, 1997), Work as Meaning Inventory (Michael, Bryan, & Ryan, 2012), and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Mowday, Steers & Porter, 1979) were used to measure the constructs of present study. Correlation analysis showed that perceived organizational politics and its constructs (i.e. Get along to Get Ahead, General Political Behavior, and Pay and Promotion Policies) were negatively correlated with meaningful work and organizational commitment and their constructs. Simple linear regression analysis showed that perceived organizational politics was significant negative predictor of meaningful work (i.e. Meaning Making through Work, Positive meaning, and Greater Good Motivation) and organizational commitment (i.e. continuance commitment, affective commitment, and normative commitment). Simple linear regression also showed that meaningful work was significant positive predictor of organizational commitment and its constructs (i.e. continuance commitment, affective commitment, and normative commitment). Independent sample t-test demonstrated that females were significantly higher on perceived organizational politics and lower on meaningful work and organizational commitment and its constructs (i.e. continuance commitment, affective commitment, and normative commitment). Results of present study will be helpful in providing possible implication for various organizational settings especially for understating university teachers’ commitment with their organizations and for employers to establish policies regarding employees’ welfare in work settings. Suggestions for the future research and limitations of the current study have been discussed.

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    Dr. Najma Iqbal Malik, Sohaib Haleem

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  • Abstract

    This research paper aims to evaluate the religious and cultural significance of hijab (veil) in Europe in the wake of Western hostility to this Islamic female dress code. In the aftermath of 9/11, there is an increasing trend among Muslim women in Europe and America to use hijab as an embodiment of Islamic identity. Western critics of Islam are hostile to this dress code and have been using it as a pretext to paint Islam as an oppressive and male-oriented dogma which does not give equal rights and freedom to women. Islamic feminists take this Eurocentric interpretation of Islamic veil as a continuation of Western colonial mindset to unveil Muslim women. Kahf, an Arab Muslim feminist writer, deals with the controversy regarding hijab from Islamic feministic perspective in The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf and challenges western constructed image of Muslim women as monolithic entities. The writer presents female characters that cherish hijab practice as a symbol of their Islamic identity.

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    Dr. Mazhar Hayat, Saira Akhtar, Umaira Bashir

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  • Abstract

    Recent years have witnessed increasing number of voices in favor of creation of more administrative units in Pakistan. However, there is a lack of consensus as to whether these units should be created based purely on administrative lines or ethnic and nationalistic identity of people. Movement for Saraiki identity and a separate province based on this is among the strongest movements for new provinces in Pakistan. Economic disparity between various regions within Punjab has been cited as the main reason behind the development of pro-Saraikistan sentiments among people. Although the upper/central regions of current Pakistani Punjab have remained as an administrative unit separate from southern region i.e. Saraiki belt, the linguistic border between the dialects spoken in both areas is not clearly defined. However, starting in the 1970s, Saraiki nationalists have built up a very strong narrative supporting a separate identity for Saraiki language and people. Backed up by economic and social deprivation on one side and efforts of nationalists in standardization of Saraiki language on the other side, nationalistic sentiment has taken firm roots in indigenous people residing in Saraiki belt. Nonetheless, until very recently this nationalist agenda and the demand for separate province remained a bit away from mainstream political scenario. However, after the restoration of electoral democracy in 2008, demand for new provinces including that for Saraiki province has been gaining more support from mainstream political parties. Although, the establishment of a separate province for Saraiki speaking population still looks a bit difficult in near future, support for it among the key political players as well as general population both inside and outside the Saraiki belt is increasing day by day.

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    Umer Farooq Dogar

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  • Abstract

    Son preference is a tenacious phenomenon found in various countries around the globe. Following a brief overview of son preference, this paper presents a descriptive review of socio-economic topographies of son preference and women familial status in Pakistan. It describes that there are a number of socio-economic factors which presents a relationship between the women familial status and the birth of her son. Amongst the economic factors, old age economic source and family purse are the major contributors for her old age economic support. Additionally, socio-cultural factors, gives her an uplifted status and shift in power, family acceptance and certain uplifted roles in the family. Being a mother of a son is the only channel which is a source of her uplifted status in the patriarchal setup. This notion confirms the ideology of son as superior and daughter neglect; resulting in promotion of son preference culture in the country. While state policies are still unable to uplift woman’s status and to eliminate discriminatory customs against her at familial level in the country.

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    Beenish Ijaz Butt, Amir Zada Asad

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  • Abstract

    The First Indian Author in English Dean Mahomed (1759-1851) in India, Ireland and England By Michael H. Fisher, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 200, Pages, 368, Rs. 250.00

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    Dr. Muhammad Shafique Bhatti

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  • Abstract

    This paper investigates the ideology or the mindset that operates behind the practices of social institutions in Steinbeck’s short fiction Breakfast. Steinbeck’s political poetics suggests that ideologies are always a manmade phenomenon but they are, universalised, legitimised and naturalised through social agencies, social organizations and social institutions. In the story under analysis, he describes the role of religion, family, traditions, sacrifice and rural simplicity that let the present oppressive system go on. These social agencies first routinise the exploitative ideological practices and then interpellate the social subjects to accept the common experiences as natural phenomenon. Being a political writer, he produces some gaps in the ruling ideologies. The readers are astonished to observe these irregularities in the text that the hegemonic hierarchies try to smooth over. He is an expert artist in using the philosophy of dialectics in his art. The dynamic conflicts in a piece of literature have a lot weightage to enlist the reader. Consequently, the reader sees through the ideologised face of social realities and makes up his mind to wage a war, in his own way, against the hierarchical hegemonies that justify the oppression and exploitation of the weak by the authorised. Althusser’s concept of ideologies that he presented in his essay Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses is selected to inform the study as a theoretical framework.

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    Muhammad Saleem

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  • Abstract

    This paper aims at investigating the form and function of T.S. Eliot’s favourite artistic technique i.e. free repetition of form in Ash-Wednesday. Well aware of the strategic use of verbal choices in poetic art, Eliot consciously appropriated two distinguished categories of traditional rhetoric: epizeuxis and ploce. These two modes of exact copying of some previous part of the text stand for immediate repetition and intermittent repetition, respectively. They operate at a word level, phrase level and clause level in the language of the poem under analysis. The acceptance and respect this modern poet of the previous century continues to enjoy greatly owes to his mature artistic sensibility that is actualised through the formal devices he used. The hypothesised functions that these two means of free verbal repetition perform are: to estrange the poetic discourse for enlisting the reader, to stress some idea, to convey the size and depth of the emotion or thought, to enpasulise some discussion, to turn the poetic argument into a debate, and sometimes to emphasise the helplessness of the modern man. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry by Leech (1989) is selected to work as the theoretical frame work for the present study. The research project is expected to define and determine the aesthetic role of free verbal repetition in the creation, effectiveness and suggestiveness of Eliot’s poetic art.

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    Muhammad Saleem

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  • Abstract

    Usefulness and Liking are main considerations for learning any subject in academic settings. English being official language and saleable skill in Pakistan is considered very useful. People in Pakistan also like to study English as it is the language of the elite class in Pakistan. The study intended to explore the perceptions of usefulness and liking of students of English language at University of Sargodha, Pakistan. A purposefully developed questionnaire was used to collect data from 185 bachelor level students from the departments of English and Education. It is concluded that the university students in Pakistan consider English language useful for them and they have also developed liking for it.

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    Authors

    Muhammad Sarwar, Mehmood Ul Hassan, Ashfaque Ahmad SHAH, Shafqat Hussain, Hafiz Muhammad Alam